Barber, C., & Ross, J. (2017). Cross-cohort changes in adolescents’ civic attitudes from 1999 to 2009: An analysis of sixteen countries. Child Indicators Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s12187-017-9452-0
Abstract: Adolescents develop civic attitudes that are shaped by both proximal and distal social contexts; in turn, these contexts change over time due to cultural and historical shifts. This study uses data from the 1999 IEA Civic Education Study and the 2009 IEA International Civics and Citizenship Education Study to assess changes in governmental trust, conceptualizations of citizenship, and inclusive attitudes toward racial/ethnic and gender equality in sixteen countries participating in both surveys. Well-fitting scales were created for each of five attitudes examined, indicating that the structure of attitudes was similar in both cohorts. While attitudes toward racial/ethnic and gender equality became more inclusive in nearly every country, patterns of change in citizenship norms and trust were more varied across countries. Gender gaps also became less pronounced over time for every outcome except for social movement citizenship, which indicated a continuing presence of gender-based norms for civic engagement.